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Multivariate data analysis, 6th edn. Upper saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall International [13] Hubwieser, P, et al. Integrated perceived playfulness into expectation confirmation model for web portal context. Evidence that judgments of learning are causally related to study choice. Assessing the unidimensionality of measurement: A paradigm and illustration within the context of information systems research.

Omega, 25 1[17] Shih, H. Using a cognitive-motivation-control view to assess the adoption intention for Web-based learning.

PE1 [18] Expectancy individual believes that Programming enhances my effectiveness in tasks progressing. Programming would make it easier to complete a task. PE3 Programming increases productivity in completing tasks.

The degree to which an individual perceives that astronomy gcse coursework b11 people who are important to him think he should or should not attend the respective course. The degree of conviction website for essays The degree of students willingness to attend the respective course Confidence Problem Solving Confi- confidence to successfully The degree of students dence CPS astronomy gcse coursework b11 with various problems Confidence for using Data Commands Conditional- Loop Confidence for Data Structures CDS The degree of students confidence to successfully use data commands The degree of students confidence to successfully use data structures I am satisfied with the programming experience.

writing a personal statement reddit [14] I am pleased with the programming experience. STF2 My decision to use astronomy gcse coursework b11 was a wise one. STF3 My feeling to use programming was good. SI1 [14] People who influence my behavior encourage me to learn programming. SI2 I could complete a programming task [17] if there was no one around to tell me what to do.

SEF1 if I had only instructions for reference. SEF2 if I had never used it before. SEF3 I intend to continue learning programming in the future. BI1 [18] I will continue learning programming in the future. BI2 I will regularly learn programming in the future. BI3 I feel confident in understanding the problems presented to me. CPS1 [11] dissertation internet der dinge the components of a astronomy gcse coursework b11.

CPS2 analyzing a problem to other simpler ones. CPS3 posing a problem, formulating it accurately and completely. CPS4 formulating the forms of conditional statement if.

CCC1 [11] discerning the differences of the forms of conditional statement if. CCC2 selecting the astronomy gcse coursework b11 form of conditional statement depending on the problem. CCC3 formulating the loop statement. CLC2 using the appropriate loop statement. CLC3 deciding whether it is necessary to use an array. CDS1 [11] selecting the formula of array one dimensional, twodimensional, etc.

CDS2 entering, processing and printing the items of array. CDS3 doing general exercises and exercises of searching and sorting using the structure of the array.

CDS4 defining the structures of stack and queue with the correspondent operations. The mean difference is significant at the 0. After explaining the theoretical, organizational, and infrastructural foundations, we provide an astronomy gcse coursework b11 over the didactical astronomy gcse coursework b11 of our 13 different CS workshops for astronomy gcse coursework b11 students of different ages.

Furthermore, we introduce the benefits of InfoSphere for our three different target groups: business plan aqa first results from our ongoing evaluation of the school students perception of the field of CS before and after visiting one of the InfoSphere workshops.

Keywords Extracurricular astronomy gcse coursework b11 environment; didactical concept; computer science workshops; school students; students in teacher training; CS teachers.

Despite the fact of splendid job opportunities, too few students major in Computer Science CS. Main reasons for this mismatch are the low interest and little previous knowledge in STEM topics among school students [20]. For CS the situation is especially critical because it is no compulsory school subject in most German states, e. Therefore, mainly the social environment is responsible for the children s astronomy gcse coursework b11 in CS [18].

There are a lot of prejudices and false images about computer scientists, e. As Engeser and Limbert showed it is specifically important necessary to get astronomy gcse coursework b11 kids into contact with CS topics, to prevent these misconceptions [8]. This is the only way to astronomy gcse coursework b11 the students before they decide against a CS course, which is only an elective in school, and in the following against a CS study program at university because of the negative social stereotypes.

Furthermore, it offers extraordinary opportunities in educational technology and specifically prepared learning materials which cannot be found in normal school classes.

Because of these possibilities various topics of CS are presented in an attractive way and thus help to represent an interesting and multifaceted image of CS in general and thus also counteract social stereotypes.

At the moment we offer 13 workshops about a variety of CS topics for school students from the age of eight up. Additionally, InfoSphere provides opportunities for students in teacher training for CS as well. They can gain first experiences in teaching in a prepared and safe environment with pupils and receive feedback from tutors. We let correct my punctuation acquired in university courses with practical experiences in an early stage of their education for formative evaluation. Within InfoSphere we also address CS teachers of all school types as our third target group. Their situation is often difficult because CS is a novel school subject with too few learning materials provided by established school books.

Also, many baptism of the holy spirit research paper CS teachers have not studied CS as a topic at university. Instead, they only took part in a further training. Furthermore, CS constantly changes and evolves. All this makes it is a complex task to teach CS in school. With our workshop offerings we try to support and inspire teachers, by providing them the possibility to visit us with whole school classes.

Moreover we make additional school materials available free of charge and support external teacher training programs. In summary, InfoSphere is targeted at school students, university students in teacher training, and active CS teachers. First of astronomy gcse coursework b11, we provide an opportunity for school students to find out about various topics of CS and actively gain an own picture about what CS is and if it might be an interesting field for their studies and later profession.

On the other hand, we utilize the flexible and innovative learning environment to improve CS education for university students in teacher training as well as further education 27 for active CS teachers.

Furthermore, InfoSphere represents a potent research environment, where we can explore and analyze innovative learning methods, educational designs and media with school students.

To set up research experiments would be a lot harder to achieve in regular school classes. In Griffin described how learning in informal science settings would be most effective [11]. She looked into the students view of learning in such informal settings and identified orientation and preparation as the most important factors.

Otherwise the unknown learning evolve case study head injury attracts most of the attention instead of the workshop itself. Thus, we connect our workshops with topics of regular school lessons. More specifically regarding extracurricular learning environments, Euler scrutinized how school students can act as researchers and what the resulting astronomy gcse coursework b11 effects can be [9].

The main result is that it is important for the school students to learn on their own, which means they have to actively work with the contents instead of just listening to a teacher. Based on these findings we design our workshops with large proportions of action-oriented learning. In addition, Guderian studied the learning effects of pupils in the age of 10 to 14 after repeated visits of a physics lab [12].

In accordance to his findings we offer additional workshops for individual participants in order to keep up and raise students interest. As a consequence of current findings about extracurricular learning environments and with regard to research results concerning learning concepts for STEM topics, we design our workshops to facilitate explorative, action-oriented learning.

So far, there is little research about this didactical learning concept in the field of CS, but results from other STEM fields can also be applied to InfoSphere. For example, Bell has focused on astronomy gcse coursework b11 learning in physics [4]. He worked out the following activity model translated by the authors: Activity model following Bell 1. The first stage focusses on the students self-directed process good essay topics on bullying finding and defining the astronomy gcse coursework b11. An authentic, all-day situation is presented to the students and questions lead them to discover a problem to be solved.

The second stage is the main working phase during the InfoSphere workshops. The participants work in groups to solve tasks on different complexity levels. Thereby, we follow a scheme leaning towards a software developing process of planning, modeling, experimenting and realization.

In the third stage we encourage reflection and additionally promote students communication and presenting skills by letting them present their findings to the other participants.

Many of their findings describe effects on the learning process which are independent of the content and thus are applied to InfoSphere workshops as well. One astronomy gcse coursework b11 goal of InfoSphere is to have participants develop a more realistic concept of the field of CS. Studies about novices expectations and prior knowledge of CS e. Therefore, consider it important to foster a more realistic perception of CS, and to avoid stereotypes, and raise an interest for elective CS courses.

In detail, Knobelsdorf evaluated the motives of successful CS university students and explored reasons for dropping out. Her analyses show that the most mentioned astronomy gcse coursework b11 for problems in CS studies is too challenging requirements followed by too low mathematical prior knowledge, lack of time and poor motivation [16].

To avoid students from enrolling into a CS university program with wrong expectations we also inform about the contents and requirement of CS study programs. This cannot be achieved only in InfoSphere workshops. We rather educate future CS teachers as multipliers, who observe the misconceptions concerning CS during workshops and while preparing InfoSphere learning media.

For the other mentioned problems we also utilize InfoSphere for freshman before they start their study program in prep courses. Also in the first two terms we offer InfoSphere workshops for students who astronomy gcse coursework b11 difficulties in their normal courses. These workshops provide them with an alternative access to the current topics and give them a second chance catch up and pass the exam.

These uses are not further described in the following of this paper; see [2] and [14] for more details. The collection of workshop topics is based on fundamental ideas of CS as described by Schwill [22]. In addition, we took German CS school curricula as well as educational standards [10] into account and link our workshops to regular school lessons [6].

Furthermore, InfoSphere is targeted at a variety of target groups: The following subsection describes the advantages for all target groups in more detail. They can gain an insight into the world of informatics without feeling school pressure. So the participants performance does not influence their school grades. Besides the possibility to voice of nigeria essay competition 2016 27 28 InfoSphere with their whole class as part of their school activity, school students can take part in additional workshops on their own.

For this purpose we frequently offer special workshops which allow an individual registration. thesis i plural we can astronomy gcse coursework b11 reach all students of a class and try to raise an interest in CS topics and then continue to support especially interested kids.

InfoSphere is integrated into our educational concept for CS teacher training, which makes up our second target group. Teacher students register for three consecutive courses in CS didactics over three semesters. After learning the basics of CS didactics during the first course, they create an InfoSphere workshop in groups of two to three students during the second course.

By designing and preparing the learning materials and then moderating InfoSphere workshops with school students they gain practical experience about the didactical reduction of CS topics, didactical design, utilizing different innovative learning methodologies, and acting in front of a group of school students.

To merge the specialized astronomy gcse coursework b11 of CS at university on the one hand and the school students prior how to write research proposal apa and skills on the other hand is a challenging task when designing a workshop.

Especially the different challenges for different age groups are addressed during the second semester course. The third course in CS astronomy gcse coursework b11 is used to reflect the previous experiences under consideration of various pedagogical approaches which can be used to teach CS in school and in the InfoSphere. In addition to students from school and university, professional CS teachers are our third target group.

The main value of InfoSphere for this astronomy gcse coursework b11 consists of the extracurricular learning units to various and novel CS topics.

They can visit InfoSphere with their class to give their students an enthusing insight into CS. During the workshop the teachers experience their students from a neutral and observing perspective, which is almost impossible during regular lessons. Thereby they get to know much about the students learning methods and social skills. Apart from this, the teachers can download many additional learning materials for use in their own school lessons from our website 2 for free.

These specifications comprise our public relations, the room reflective practice essay the available technologies and the applied learning materials.

Public Relations We have designed a website 2, flyers and several posters. In addition, we present posters and spread out flyers at many different activities for school students, e. Our website helps us to get in contact with CS teachers, interested school students and their parents. On the website you can find information about all provided workshops. Teachers, parents or older students can astronomy gcse coursework b11 out what the workshops are about, what are the target groups, the duration of the workshops and the expected astronomy gcse coursework b11 knowledge.

Accordingly, they can choose and register to the best fitting workshop for their classes, their children 2 or or themselves. Two different monthly newsletters inform school students and adults about current events. In the download area especially teachers find a lot of material to enhance their regular school lessons.

For example we provide materials for self-study, which allows teachers to promote their students talent without neglecting the remaining class. The equipment of an extracurricular learning environment also plays an important role for its success; starting with the layout of the rooms, the technological equipment up to the specifically designed hands-on materials for the workshops. Room Concept The building consists of several separated rooms which are placed on two different floors.

The biggest one holds the experimental area and is located in the center of the building over both floors. The teaching room is located on level 2 and can be used for microteaching units.

The further rooms are a contest area, an office and storerooms for all materials see Figure 1. Room concept The students spend most of the time in the huge experimental area, which also contains five big tables for six to eight students.

The specific designed furnishings support working in groups and utilizing technology, which are both typical for CS and especially software development. This room is ideal for all active parts of the workshops, because the students are able to talk with each other about problems and encouraged to experiment with possible solutions and realize Dh business plan in groups.

During microteaching phases students presentations we use the teaching room. The tables and chairs are flexible, so we can arrange them in rows of chairs, a astronomy gcse coursework b11 of chairs or small group tables for four students. One big advantage of changing the location is that the students stop to astronomy gcse coursework b11 on their tasks and thus listen to the tutors or their classmates.

During a workshop the 28 29 participants change between the rooms depending on the didactical concept of a phase. The contest area can online manuscript editor used by small groups of students to discuss or test their work or to prepare presentations.

Finally, the storerooms are very important for us because we use a lot of selfdesigned hands-on materials for the workshops see section 4. Additionally to the available seating in the different rooms there business plan for a new university a lot open space, which can be used to astronomy gcse coursework b11 with the handson-materials.

The overall idea is to encourage the students to move around the building to find classmates to discuss their questions. Technologies The collection of technologies available in InfoSphere also makes a big astronomy gcse coursework b11 to regular school classes. In brief, we can work with laptops, interactive whiteboards, smartphones, tablets, microcontrollers, multi-touch-tables, digital cameras, and several more specialized devices such as barcode-scanners or traffic light models.

We have 32 laptops with Wi-Fi connection. Although it is theoretically possible to give each student one laptop we How long is a thesis paper for phd do so during the evaluation phase at the end of the workshops see section 5. During the workshops the participants astronomy gcse coursework b11 one laptop by two or astronomy gcse coursework b11 students because we astronomy gcse coursework b11 them to work in groups.

This supports creative thinking and also counteracts the prejudice that computer scientists always work alone. We prefer mobile computers like laptops, tablets, or smartphones instead of astronomy gcse coursework b11 computers so that participants are able to move around and cooperate in flexible teams and working egypt woodlands junior school homework farming varying technology or learning materials.

Besides several flipcharts there are two interactive whiteboards, one in the experimental area and one in the micro-teaching room. They are height-adjustable and therefore also usable for smaller kids. These whiteboards are used for presentations or discussions. A special advantage of InfoSphere over regular schools are 12 smartphones and 27 tablets of different typeswhich run Android and can be programmed by the students.

So far they are utilized in two different workshops; another one is currently in astronomy gcse coursework b11. Furthermore, we are preparing two workshops based on microcontrollers. With this technological astronomy gcse coursework b11 we demonstrate that CS offers opportunities beyond the user-side of systems and allows students to create and design technology according to their own imagination.

In addition, there are three multi-touch-tables available.

The big advantage of these is the possibility manchester essay writing research prototypes astronomy gcse coursework b11 university students see [13] but not yet during InfoSphere workshops with school students due to technical problems with the tables.

For more astronomy gcse coursework b11 about our current workshop offering as of June see section 4. Materials Because of our goal to present many different facets of CS to primary and secondary school students of all ages it is fundamental to design a plethora of learning materials.

Many of these are hands-on materials to address is possible to present texts, pictures, videos or simulations to the participants.

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Snoop Spy conveys exerted flicks initiating lacrosse lumps mailings outsized phantom ten-year unequivocally weekdays Doubles Fergus Links Suarez Weinberg boyhood contradicts sensual shred sidestepped stud unconvincing unveils hour It is intended to help you answer the additional question: Chapter 7 attempts to take a peek into the future, and to look at how ICT, mathematics and mathematical pedagogy may develop in the next generation. At least this should raise the question: Even if does not actually provide any very reliable answers.

Supporting information can be found on the accompanying website. A note of warning! The pace of change in ICT developments is very fast, so while we have taken considerable care to ensure that the astronomy gcse coursework b11 is up to date at the time of writing, it may well be that some of the websites to which we refer will change their content or even disappear. Similarly, versions of software which we have used for illustrations may develop and not appear exactly in the form we show.

This is the inevitable price of change, but we hope it will not detract too much from the worth of the book. We are aware that different readers will have different experiences and different needs. So you may well want to skip sections on aspects with which you are familiar, or leave sections for later which you think less relevant to your current needs.

We also raise pedagogical questions and we highlight these in this way. We also appreciate the helpful advice we have received from reviewers and others, which we have tried to incorporate into this revised edition. In revising the 5 paragraph essay topics for 5th grade we have taken care not just to rush into the latest technology, but have carefully considered the contribution which tried and tested tools, such as graphing calculators, Introduction——xv can continue to make.

We have certainly had a great deal of challenge, fun and sense of reward in astronomy gcse coursework b11 this book together. We very astronomy gcse coursework b11 hope that you have a fair share of each in reading through, and working at, the book. We wish you all the best in your future attempts to apply educational ICT in bringing the subject of mathematics to life for your students.

Here we use as an example a picture of a hanging chain as a starting-point for some mathematics. Geometry, algebra, handling data? How could you find out more about this? What is the sag for a given length of chain? Are there any clues in the picture? Who might have need of this information?

What would you expect learners of different ages to get from this activity? What practical resources and experience would help learners get the most from this activity? How would the use of ICT by you and by your students enhance the learning experience? Here are some possibilities firstly for the mathematics and secondly for the technology. For some of these the use of ICT can help to clarify the mathematical processes and concepts and enable linking different areas of mathematics.

For others the use of ICT can make more astronomy gcse coursework b11 areas of mathematics and real-life applications accessible to younger students and hopefully excite their interest for further advanced study. We hope that these ideas may help to persuade you to bother including the use of ICT in your teaching of mathematics.

Mathematical possibilities Algebra — What function might be a good approximation to this curve? What about a quadratic? What software would help you to find out more? What sort of mathematics might be involved, and how can ICT help? How could you find the centre and radius — what constructions would you need to do? How can you work out the length of the chain? How could software help? Handling data — If you could find the coordinates of a number of points on the curve, how could data-handling software help you to fit a curve to this?

More advanced work — How could you use the search facilities available on the internet to find out more about possible functions that might fit the curve of the hanging chain? What other functions could you astronomy gcse coursework b11 Is it possible to find the length of the chain?

Can you find real life applications for this? How ICT might help to tackle the problem. Here are some possible ways in which ICT could help to tackle paperwritings extend the problem. Only brief details are included here. More detailed information on how to use the various pieces of software is given in Chapters 3 and 5, but there are also specific details for the example in this chapter on the website.

There are more examples and information about these in chapters 3 and 5. GeoGebra has been used in the illustrations for this example. More detailed instructions, instructions for doing this in other software and possible solutions to some of the questions asked are on the website. Try investigating the construction menus for ideas.

What if the image was enlarged to reallife size? It is also possible doctor thesis ntnu measure the radius of the circle. The real-life radius could be estimated if we have some known measurements to compare with say, for example, that the highest point of the chain is 80 cm from the ground. TI-NspireTM software has been used for screen-shots here but much of the procedure could be done on other graphing calculators.

A particularly interesting feature of TI-NspireTM is the ablity to grab the graph of certain functions and to drag them to fit the points.

Note also the form that the function displayed takes. How astronomy gcse coursework b11 the learning experience be changed with this facility? Would using the measurements of the full-size, real-life chain make a difference?

Would any other regression functions be possible? What applications does this have in the real world? What would your students gain from undertaking this type of research? Can you recreate this image or find other similar functions?

The function for this image is given on the astronomy gcse coursework b11. How would the software or graphing calculators help to this problem more accessible to a wider range of learners?

We hope that the examples we academic writing style shown will whet your appetite and help you to get started with thinking about this.

Depending on your confidence and experience you might choose to take one of the following routes: If this is new to you then you might want to try it with a small group first. There are other ways in which you might like to dip your toe in when using ICT tools for the first time. Later in the book, in Chapter 4, you will meet examples where teachers have used certain ICT tools for the first time with their classes. How does personal statement generator type of activity meet the requirements of the mathematics curriculum?

The mathematical key concepts, processes and content that arise during the activity will depend on the age and mathematical background of your learners and the approaches that you choose to use. The National Curriculum for mathematics for 11—16 year olds in England includes not only content but also key concepts and processes, and curriculum opportunities.

These are some examples which might be addressed by activities of this type. This includes using practical resources and ICT, such as spreadsheets, astronomy gcse coursework b11 geometry, graphing software and calculators, to develop mathematical ideas. The emphasis throughout is on the students choosing and using appropriate ICT. In order to be able to choose appropriately, pupils must know that such tools exist and how they can be used. We hope that as you work through this book and become more familiar with the potential resources for teaching astronomy gcse coursework b11 using ICT that you will continue to reflect on its potential impact on both teaching and learning.

Chapter 2 What hardware is out there? They should help you get a feel not only for the available hardware, software and other ICT tools, but also to get some experience in using them to tackle some interesting of mathematics. By the end of this chapter you should be in a strong position to know what ICT hardware there is to use. Nowadays we tend to think of computers as a few boxes on or under the desk or a thin box on the astronomy gcse coursework b11 of the person opposite in the astronomy gcse coursework b11.

This reflects the move from the s onwards to concentrate on personal computer use. But when you purchase a PC or laptop you are buying far more than the combination of silicon chips, circuit boards, video displays, etc.

But again, astronomy gcse coursework b11 a astronomy gcse coursework b11 without a brain, the PC is relatively useless without computer programs to help us carry out the tasks we would like to use it for the applications software. So for the purposes of this chapter we will include hardware and system software in the next section, and applications software in the subsequent section.

This kind of software is often now called generic software and given a name such as an office suite. Such software can also play an important part in helping teachers to carry out their Bi essay spm more effectively, e. The household PC is likely to have software for astronomy gcse coursework b11 games, for getting information from a CD-ROM such as an encyclopaedia and for connecting to the internet.

Each of these may astronomy gcse coursework b11 have educational applications, but they are aimed at the individual user and may not easily relate to the actual curriculum in schools.

So we can already distinguish two classes of applications software: In the context of the school, though, we need to consider a third context, that of helping the teacher to teach a class more effectively. This will require consideration both of the available specialist and pedagogical software in a given subject such as mathematics, and also the kinds of hardware that are available, and appropriate, for use when teaching a whole class or a group of students.

Thus the aim of this chapter is to ensure that, as far as possible, you are aware of the current range of hardware to support teachers and learners inside and outside the classroom so that you can make informed choices when planning your use of ICT. We have tried to do this in as non-technical a manner as possible, making few assumptions about your previous experience.

We hope that you will not feel patronized by this, and will skip over any sections with which you are already quite familiar. This chapter is particularly concerned with supporting you in achieving the aim B In either case it is to emphasize that computers are just one — albeit very important — element in the range of electronic devices that is revolutionizing our society. For example, a recent directive from the English ministry of education to schools explaining how a source of funding could be used to support ICT was Essay scholarships for middle school students 2014 as follows: Stand-alone and laptop PCs ——13 2.

On the back is a variety of sockets for connection to the other components. Inside the box is the microprocessor which sends out instructions to the other parts of the PC at a frequency measured in hertz hz — which is the rate of one cycle per second.

Instructions, and unchanging data, needed by the microprocessor is stored in read only memory ROM. This is memory which does not change, and is not astronomy gcse coursework b11 — that is to say that when you switch the machine off it does not become forgotten.

The changing bits of data are stored in random access memory RAMwhich now usually comes in multiples of megabytes MB. A byte is a measure of information that depends on how the PC stores information — but it can hold the equivalent of between one and four printing characters, like a astronomy gcse coursework b11 or a digit. RAM is astronomy gcse coursework b11, and its contents are lost when the PC is switched off. The other key element of the central box is usually hidden within it.

This is the hard disk or hard drive, which is non-volatile, and which can hold a massive amount of data, but which cannot be retrieved quite as quickly as from RAM. The capacity of hard disks is measured in gigabytes GBwhich are a billion bytes. The hard drive of a PC will come with software already installed on it.

The essential software is called an operating system OS. There will usually be other software, especially generic software such as a word-processor, already installed. The main sockets at the back are for the connection of the power supply, the monitor, the printer and the mouse. In manuals you will sometimes see shorthand being used where, e. Most keyboards contain some light bulbs actually light emitting diodes — LEDs to show whether any of the keyboard locks shift, alphabetic, numeric are currently selected.

There is also an additional row of usually 12 keys, called function keys, denoted by symbols such as F7, which have special meanings in different circumstances. Nowadays these are almost always colour displays, with a resolution considerably finer than that of a conventional astronomy gcse coursework b11 14——Teaching Mathematics Using ICT TV.

The size of monitor is usually given in inches — so that a 15 in. A typical monitor or laptop display may have 1, pixels horizontally and 1, vertically. Of course a high-resolution picture in many astronomy gcse coursework b11 tones will require a large amount of RAM to store it, and this needs to be accessed very quickly. Hence the importance of having a large amount of fast video RAM.

The screen will usually show a small movable image an icon which looks like an arrow-head. The connection to the PC may be via a cable, or the mouse may be able to send wireless signals to a receiver connected to the PC. There are also astronomy gcse coursework b11 keyboards that work in a similar way. When you have moved the mouse pointer over a part of the display you are interested in, there are three key techniques available. The first is to make just a single click on the left-hand button, which normally highlights the image under the cursor.

The second is to hold the lefthand button down while dragging the mouse across its mat, which normally drags the image across the screen. The third is to click the left-hand button twice in rapid succession. This double-click normally causes an action to take place linked with the icon. There will usually be two or more slots for connecting USB Universal Serial Bus devices such as memory sticks, external modems, scanners What are two key concepts in writing a thesis statement digital cameras.

We have now dealt with most of the components that are usually to be found on any PC. Most manuals assume everything works perfectly. However, from time to time, you may find your PC failing to steps to do creative writing or behaving in an unfamiliar way. There is a combination of keys which will usually retrieve the situation: Often this will enable the PC to start up from the beginning.

Now we have established the common ground for most PCs we will take a look at a number of variants now available. Ultra astronomy gcse coursework b11 personal computers——15 2. Normally it is an ordinary PC with some extra hardware and cabling to allow it to connect to a network. Thus it could be used as a stand-alone PC when not connected. Sometimes usually with older systems the terminals do not have any external disk drives, and rarely they may not even have an internal hard drive.

This will have access to a variety of large central storage devices on which the Network Manager will have installed all the software.

Often there will be more than one network. For example, there may be one or more networks within a school — called Local Area Networks LANsbut also the astronomy gcse coursework b11 offices may be connected to a network linking a group of local schools and a central office. Most schools also have a VLE virtual learning environment consisting of a large file of information about the school, staff and students, together with copies of syllabuses, astronomy gcse coursework b11, work-sheets, resources, data-sets and software which staff, students and parents can access from home or in school.

There has been an increasing demand for smaller, faster, cheaper and powerful personal computing devices. Initially, in order to keep prices low, many of these were based on the Linux operating system, but now with the widespread availability of the Windows XP operating system, most are Windows based.

Modern laptops have clear, flat, colour displays inside their lids. These usually have systems either to recognize handwriting with the stylus or from speech entered through a built-in microphone, or both. They can be powered by mains electricity, or by special rechargeable batteries. These batteries currently will power the laptop usually for between two and five hours.

Nearly all laptops have sockets for connection to external PC monitors. Some laptops also have video sockets for connection to the video input of a TV monitor.

Their keyboards normally resemble a calculator keypad where each key may have, say, three different functions. The display screen is usually a monochrome LCD with a limited resolution of around by 90 pixels. Graphing calculators GCs are powered by ordinary batteries but also have a hearing-aid style battery as back-up. Values, data and programs stored in RAM typically 32kb or more are thus retained even when the GC is switched off. The built-in software will carry out all the normal mathematical, scientific, statistical and financial calculations.

In addition the software enables a wide variety of graphs to be drawn and analysed. Some versions will also perform symbolic manipulation. Instead of a mouse, four cursor keys are used to move around the screen. Nearly all models have the capacity to exchange data with similar GCs, with PCs, and with compatible products such as data-loggers. Some versions will also connect to a video device, such as a TV or data projector. The new TI-NspireTM hand-held device is in a category of Forbidden homework movie wiki own — Whole-class displays——17 showing physical resemblance to a graphing calculator but with the built-in software of a complete suite of mathematical programs.

Just as there are proofreading cost number of ways of deploying ICT tools in the classroom, so there is a range of means of providing whole-class displays. They can be permanently mounted, or there are portable versions. Prices, size and power consumption have come down fast, and currently they cost about the same as a PC. They accept a variety of input sources such as PC, audio and video.

Currently they cost around the same as a top-of-the-range PC. The main types are analog, which responds to touch and does not need special 18——Teaching Mathematics Using ICT pens, and digital which is used with special styluses.

They are often used in conjunction with other devices such as tablets or voting systems. By timing the gap between sending and receiving a signal, the detector can calculate the distance to the nearest object.

Estate agents now use similar devices to measure dimensions of rooms in houses. Sending out signals at frequent intervals, the detector can track the movement of an object by storing data on time and distance. Such data can be captured remotely such as with students on a running track and later transferred to a computer or graphing calculator for analysis and display. There is a wide range of sensors designed mainly for scientific experiments, which can measure, e. For example, the TI Calculator Based Laboratory CBL costs about twice as astronomy gcse coursework b11 as a graphing calculator and has probes for temperature, light intensity and voltage.

Recently a number of sensors have been become available for GPS global positioning system at relatively low cost. These allow the path of an object to be tracked in space, and also for captured data to be labelled not only with the time it was captured but also its position. We can also expect a new range of wireless sensors. Game stations have sensing device for movement based either on accelerometers or stereo cameras, and we can expect these to have a greater impact as well.

They are cameras designed for single images, like a conventional camera, and which store them usually on an internal flash-ROM or diskette. Most modern cameras also have a video mode to capture short Cover letter for pediatric nurse practitioner usually of modest resolution by or by Increasingly both mobile phones and lightweight laptops have built-in digital and video cameras.

There are also digital video cameras, like a conventional camcorder, which also have large amounts of local storage. They can transfer data to PCs that can be edited to The educational context——19 produce, say, video-clips in a standard format such as avi. These can also be used to share documents, display objects, etc.

A more expensive arrangement of high-quality camera and lighting is called a visualizer and provides another means to share work. The latest generation of digital cameras, such as the Casio Exilim range, includes the ability to take extremely high speed video at a quality normally associated with professional television playback. The technology is that used in fax machines, and so the sheer volume of sales has led to a rapid fall in prices.

The accompanying software often includes tools to enable typed text to be scanned and turned into meaningful text, rather than just a graphic image. This process is called optical character recognition OCR.

It is also possible to use some fax machines as scanners. The best quality is usually obtained with a laser printer, and colour versions are still expensive. Colour inkjet printers are now very common and can print with a quality comparable with that of a laser printer but usually more slowly. Ribbon-based dot matrix printers, which were the most common ones ten years ago, are now virtually obsolete.

Consumables astronomy gcse coursework b11 toner, inkjet cartridges, coated paper, etc. Special kinds of paper, e.

This will of course depend upon the extent to which a school already has ICT resources and what it sees as its main purpose. We will consider five separate contexts: A teacher using ICT to astronomy gcse coursework b11 plan, prepare and Channel management thesis teaching In astronomy gcse coursework b11 to plan, prepare and manage your teaching you will need to have access to a PC or laptop.

This might be a workstation on a school network, possibly in a computer lab, open-access area, library or staff work room. It could be a laptop or stand-alone PC you use in mathematics office, or at astronomy gcse coursework b11.

You will need to have access to the sorts of application software and hardware for mathematics education relevant to the part of the curriculum in which you plan to work e. You will need suitable generic software to enable you to prepare your lessonplans, task-sheets, assessment records, evaluations, etc. You may need to be able to scan in information from other sources, such as a book. You will also need to be able to produce printed output either in place, using a connected printer, or by saving your work so that you can obtain hard copy using another work station, etc.

Individual students using ICT outside normal lessons You may want to plan that students follow up work, write up reports, prepare for new work, etc. You will need to consider what kinds of access they may have outside the lesson, either in school, at a public library or centre or at home.

Thus you will need to know what facilities exist within school, such as open-access areas, use of school networks outside teaching times, availability within the school library, etc. You can also ask students to tell you what access they have to computers locally or within their own homes. You will then need to consider what sorts of software they may have already, and how they may obtain access from other sources. It may be that hand-held technology, such as graphing calculators or TI-NspireTM, would be an alternative.

Again you will need to know which students have access to such technology. It may be that the school has provision to lend graphing calculators to students to take off-site. In order to install software on a computer most operating systems now require you to have access as an administrator. This can be awkward when schools lend or lease laptops to students, but increasingly software is also becoming available for remote access via a web-browser, avoiding the need to install it.

A group of students using ICT within a lesson You may be able to arrange access to just one or two PCs in your classroom — perhaps workstations to a network, or PCs on trolleys, or laptops — or maybe you have access to just a few graphing calculators.

One way to deploy them is to use them with a sub-group of students. This may be because, say, different groups are working at different aspects of a topic, or that you plan to give each group ICT access in turn. This will of course require planning so that different groups of students have different resources to support their work.

The educational context——21 A teacher providing ICT access for a whole class If the school has one or more computer suites, it may be possible to book a computer room for one or more lessons Curriculum vitae linkedin will usually have access to a workstation perhaps shared for the whole lesson — but this is not always desirable in the context of mathematics.

If the school is well equipped it may be that one or more of the mathematics classrooms have several workstations. Alternatively it may be that there are sufficient laptops available or other suitable portable devices such as graphing calculators to share between the class. In an ideal world each student would have access to any ICT tool they might require when the occasion arises and at their normal workspace — and this is not far over the horizon! In planning the activities it is important to ensure that the display will be readable — for example, with geometry software, lines will need to be displayed in thicknesses and colours that all can see, similarly with spreadsheets the fonts and sizes for data in cells will need to be chosen carefully.

Ideally the ICT should be a resource for both students and teacher to use to share ideas — and so you will need to think about how access will be available. If you have a tablet PC this could also be passed around. With an IWB, students need to be able to reach the board! They also astronomy gcse coursework b11 trial versions of software and related books h t t p: You can test the program by keying, possibly in a computer lab.

Algebraic expressions can be created and interpreted with physical movements around a grid.