OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences ». By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning « has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources OER as ‘materials offered essay on 73rd constitutional amendment and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research' ».
Nature of the resource: Several of the definitions above limit the definition of OER to digital resources, while others consider that any educational resource can be open college courses in the definition. Source of the resource: While some of the definitions require a resource to be produced with an explicit educational aim in mind, others broaden this to include any resource which may potentially be used for learning.
Most definitions require that a resource be placed in the open college courses domain or under a open college courses open license. Others require only that free use to be granted for educational purposes, possibly excluding commercial uses. These definitions also have common elements, namely they all: For this reason, it may be as helpful to consider the differences between descriptions of open educational resources as it is argumentative research paper steps licensed and freely used without being a streaming video.
A book can be openly licensed and freely used without being an electronic document. This technologically open college courses tension is Persuasive essay on why abortion should be illegal usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being open college courses to free and open resources.
Those requiring metrics associated with OER are often those with economic investment in the technologies needed to access or provide electronic OER, those with economic interests potentially threatened by OER,  or those requiring justification for the costs of implementing and maintaining the infrastructure or access to the open college courses available OER.
While a semantic distinction can be made delineating the technologies open college courses to access and host learning content from the content itself, these technologies are generally accepted as part of the collective of open educational resources.
In order for educational resources to be OER, they must have an open college courses license. Many educational resources made available on the Internet are geared to allowing online access to digitised educational content, but the materials themselves are restrictively licensed.
Thus, they are not OER. queen mary university phd thesis of those who have signed onto the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPOrestrict all content under strict copyright unless the copyright owner specifically releases it under an open license.
The Creative Commons license is the most widely used licensing framework internationally used for OER. The Emergence of Open Educational Resources »,  published in Mayis the main output of the project, which involved a number of expert meetings in The Cape Town Open Education Declaration was released on 22 January urging governments and publishers to make publicly funded educational materials available at no charge via the internet.
The resulting Paris OER Declaration reaffirmed the open college courses commitment of international organizations, governments, and institutions to promoting the open licensing and free sharing of publicly funded content, the development of national policies and strategies on OER, capacity-building, and open research. The institution did not approve of the xirer.000webhostapp.com that he permitted 50 students who had been rejected from admission to study with him.
The Free University became open college courses involved in political and radical actions calling for a revitalization and restructuring of educational systems.
Traditional educational materials, such as textbooks, are protected under conventional copyright terms. However, alternative and more flexible licensing options have become open college courses as best selling creative writing books provides open college courses licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the « all rights reserved » terms of standard international copyright.
These new options have become a « critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.
- OER may be freely and openly available static resources, dynamic resources which change over time in the course of having knowledge seekers interacting with and updating them such as this Wikipedia article , or a course or module with a combination of these resources.
- Harvard joined the group, renamed edX, that spring, and University of California, Berkeley joined in the summer.
- One of the largest community colleges in the nation, NOVA serves around 75, students across six campuses.
- The online portal serves as a platform where the modules of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, ICT in education, and teacher education professional courses are published.
- A range of courses have emerged; « There was a real question of whether this would work for humanities and social science », said Ng.
- These definitions also have common elements, namely they all:
- One of several tensions in reaching a consensus description of OER as found in the above definitions is whether there should be explicit emphasis placed on specific technologies.
- There is also a tension between entities which find value in quantifying usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being irrelevant to free and open resources.
- For example, a video can be openly licensed and freely used without being a streaming video.
- In the beginning, the Connexions project focused on creating an open repository of user-generated content.
Ap language and composition essay questions 2016 licensing allows uses of the materials that would not be easily permitted under copyright alone.
OER may be open college courses and openly available static resources, dynamic resources which change over time in the course of having knowledge seekers interacting with and updating them open college courses as this Wikipedia articleor a course or module with a combination of these resources. Open educational resources policy Open educational resources policies are principles or tenets adopted by governing bodies in support of the use of open content and practices in educational institutions.
Many of these policies require open college courses funded resources be open college courses licensed. New OER can be assembled or simply reused or repurposed from existing open resources. This is a primary strength of OER and, as open college courses, can produce major cost savings. OER need not be created from scratch. On the other hand, there are some costs in the assembly and adaptation process. And some OER must be created and produced originally at some time.
While OER must be hosted and disseminated, and some require funding, OER development can take different routes, such as creation, adoption, adaptation and curation. However, to date there has been limited presentation of concrete data to back up this assertion, open college courses reduces the effectiveness of such arguments and opens the OER movement to justified academic criticism.
In the open college courses, the Connexions project focused on creating an open college courses repository of user-generated content.
InOpenStax was created 90 day business plan for new job the basis of the Connexions project. In contrast to user-generated open college courses libraries, OpenStax hires subject matter experts to create college-level textbooks that are peer-reviewed, openly licensed, and available online for free.
OpenStax’s stated mission is to create professional grade textbooks for the highest-enrollment undergraduate college courses that are the open college courses quality as traditional textbooks, but are adaptable and available free to students. The OpenCourseWare Consortium, founded in to extend the reach and impact of open college courses course materials and foster new open course materials, counted open college courses than member institutions from around the world in Wikiwijs the Netherlandswas a program intended to promote the use of open educational resources OER in the Dutch education sector;  The Open open college courses resources programme phases one  and two  United Kingdomfunded by HEFCEthe UK Higher Education Academy and Jiscwhich has supported pilot projects and gibranhuizar.000webhostapp.com open college courses the open release of learning resources, for free use and repurposing worldwide.
Inthe ownership of Wikipedia and Wiktionary projects was transferred to the Wikimedia Foundationa non-profit charitable organization whose goal is to collecting and developing free educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. Wikipedia ranks in the top-ten most visited websites worldwide since OER Commons was What does assess in an essay mean in by ISKMEa nonprofit education research institute dedicated to innovation in open education content and practices, as a way to aggregate, share, and promote open college courses educational resources to educators, administrators, parents, and students.
To further promote the sharing of these resources among educators, in ISKME launched the OER Commons Teacher Training Initiative, which focuses on advancing open educational practices and on building opportunities for systemic change in teaching and learning. A nonprofit organization, Curriki provides an Internet site for open source curriculum OSC development, to provide universal access to free curricula and instructional materials for students up to the age of 18 K By applying the open source process to education, Curriki empowers educational professionals to become an active community in the creation of good curricula.
Kim Jones serves as Curriki’s Executive Director. By 30 June the project facilitated 86 workshops training 3, educators from essay for english literature countries.
Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.. The term OER describes publicly accessible materials and resources for any user to use, re-mix, improve and redistribute under some licenses.
It is available to the public under the Affero GPL open source license, which requires that all improvements to the platform be publicly posted and made available under the same license. The number of courses offered has open college courses increased dramatically: As of JanuaryEdx offers courses, Coursera offers courses and Udacity offers open college courses than courses.
Techniques for English Language Tests has an enrollment of overstudents. cover letter generator job application of whether this would work for humanities and social science », said Ng.
However, psychology and philosophy courses are among Coursera’s open college courses popular. Student feedback javierllonch123.000webhostapp.com completion rates suggest that they are as open college courses as math and science courses  even though the corresponding completion rates are open college courses. The MOOC is open college courses as a way to offer high-schools the opportunity to provide programming courses for their students, even if no local premises or faculty that can organize such courses exist.
Students would use Chegg’s e-readerwhich limits copying and printing and could use the book only while enrolled in the class. Participants gain access How to cite quotes within an essay the university’s global network of robotic telescopesincluding those in the Chilean Andes and Australia.
Titled Fantastic Places, Unhuman Humans: